Notes and Information for MacArthur Students
Pledge of Allegiance and Prehistory Basics
1. What is another word for allegiance? Loyalty
2. What is another word for pledge? Promise
3. What is another word for fairness? Justice
4. What is a government where citizens vote for leaders and the leaders make the laws? Republic
5. What does prehistory mean? It is the time before writing.
6. What do we call ancient people who had no permanent homes but who followed and hunted animals? Nomads
7. Name one animal early man hunted that was 11 feet high and weighed over 6 tons. Woolly Mammoth
8. What early animal did nomads hunt that is now extinct? Woolly Mammoth
9. When did prehistory end? It ended about 3000 B.C., when Sumerians created cuneiform.
10. When did woolly mammoths live? Prehistoric Times
1. When did the last Ice Age end? About 10,000 years ago
2. Which pre-human creature lived from c. 350,000 B.C. to 35,000 B.C.? Neanderthal
3. Which continent is north of Africa? Europe
4. Which continent is east of Europe? Asia
5. Which ocean is east of Asia? Pacific Ocean
6. Which continent is south of Asia? Australia
7. Is a continent a country? Explain? No. A continent is a large mass of land, usually surrounded by water. A country is a big political entity (thing) with a government.
8. Which ocean is in between Africa and Australia? Indian Ocean
9. Which continent is north of Africa? Europe
10. Where did Neanderthals live from possibly c. 350,000 to 35,000 B.C.? Europe and Southeastern Asia
Neanderthals and Early Modern Humans
The Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent and the Sumerians
1. What is an urban settlement with a high development of agriculture? Civilization
2. What is a crescent-shaped area in the Middle East called? Fertile Crescent
3. What do we call the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers? Mesopotamia
4. Name the Sumerians’ writing system. Cuneiform
5. What are you called if you believe in many gods? Polytheism
6. What is the world’s first advanced civilization? Sumer
7. Name possibly the oldest written story. The Epic of Gilgamesh
8. Who invented the wheel? Sumeria
9. What did the Sumerians invent?
b. lunar calendar
1. When was the Babylonian Empire? 1900 B.C. to 1600 B.C.
2. Were farmers successful in Babylon? Yes
3. What did Babylonians build with? Bricks
4. What did King Hammurabi create? Hammurabi’s Code
5. If a son hit his father, what would his punishment be under Hammurabi’s Code?
His hands would be chopped off.
6. What were some reasons Hamurabi’s Code was important?
a. It was written
b. It was publicly displayed
Because of these two facts, everyone had to follow the Code, and the leaders couldn’t change the law whenever they wanted to.
Hittites and Phoenicians
1. What did the Hittites discover? A better way to make iron
2. Were Hittite laws written? Yes
3. Why is it so important to have written laws?
a. It was written
b. It was publicly displayed
Because of these two facts, everyone had to follow the law, and the leaders couldn’t change the law whenever they wanted to.
4. What were the Phoenicians good at? Sailing
5. What was the commercial center for Phoenicia? Carthage
6. Why was purple the color of kings’ clothing? Purple dye came from a rare shellfish
1. What did the Spartans value? Strength and courage
2. What kind of a state was Sparta? It was a military state
3. How many slaves to Spartans were there? 10 slaves for every 1 Spartan
4. At what age did a Spartan have to leave home and live with soldiers? 7
5. Name one thing Spartan women could do that was abnormal in most countries? Own land
6. Who led the government of Sparta? 2 kings
1. What happened in the Roman Republic in 60 B.C? Civil War
2. What river did Caesar cross with his army that meant Caesar wanted to control Rome? The Rubicon
3. What did Caesar say when he plunged his horse into the water? The die is cast.
4. What calendar did Julius Caesar create? Julian Calendar
5. What happened to Caesar on March 15th, 44 B.C? Caesar was murdered
6. Who was Cleopatra? She was the queen of Egypt.
7. Who was the first Roman Emperor? Octavian, later named Augustus Caesar
8. How was the Roman Empire different from the Roman Republic?
a. In the Roman Empire, people had to worship the emperor as if he were a god.
b. Citizens in the Empire had less rights than in the Republic.
c. Citizens in the Empire didn’t vote for their leaders.
9. What was Pax Romana? This was a period of peace within the Empire, where trade flourished.
Roman Family and Life
1. What were many Romans interested in pursuing? ..a virtuous life
2. Who was Paterfamilias? The Roman father held all the power.
3. Explain the Roman religion. Romans believed in many gods. We call this Roman mythology.
4. How many people lived in Rome in the first century A.D? 1 million
5. What was a constant danger in Rome? Fire
6. Where did wealthy Romans live? In the countryside, in villas
7. Describe the gladiator fights and the Colosseum? Slaves were trained to fight and kill and they battled in the Colosseum. More than 50,000 spectators could watch the fights.
8. What did Romans do everyday? They took baths.
1. Why do historians say Caligula was bad? Caligula killed others for his own pleasure, had incestuous relations with his mom and sisters, and cared little for the empire.
2. How was Nero bad? He too had incestuous relations, is believed to have played a part in burning Rome down, and cared only for himself.
3. What did Hadrian build? Was he a good emperor? Hadrian built a wall that kept out invading Picts from northern Britain. He is considered a good emperor.
4. What do “all roads lead to Rome” mean? This means that all roads in the Roman Empire led to Rome, and that Rome was the capital of Everything in the Empire.
5. Why did Emperor Diocletian split the Empire? He believed the empire had grown too big and diverse to manage from one center.
6. Name three things Constantine did:
5. How did Jesus die? Romans crucified him.
6. What did the Apostolic Fathers do? They wrote about Christianity and spread the news of Jesus.
7. What did Romans do to Christians? Romans persecuted Christians
8. What did Emperor Theodosius do in A.D. 380? He made Catholic Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Fall of the Roman Empire
List the differences between the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Latin is the language Greek is the language
Capital was Rome Capital was Constantinople
List the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire.
1. What is Arabia? It is a peninsula.
2. What is a peninsula? It is a body of land surrounded by water on three sides.
3. Who were Bedouins? Bedouins were nomads who were fierce warriors.
4. What are oases? Oases are natural springs in Arabia.
5. What do you find near large oases? Near large oases you find cities.
Beginnings of Islam
1. When was Muhammad born? 570
2. What religion did Muhammad found and what do we call its believers? He found Islam and believers are called Muslims.
3. How many wives did Muhammad have? 11
4. How many wives can Muslims have? 4
5. What is the holy book of Islam? The Koran
6. List two of the five pillars of Islam:
a. Pray five times a day
b. Give to the community
7. What is the name of the building Muslims worship in?
Muslims worship God in a mosque.
Spread of Islam
1. What is the successor of Muhammad called? Caliph
2. Who is a Shiite? He is a Muslim who thinks the Caliph should be a blood relative of Muhammad.
3. Who is a Sunni? He is a Muslim who thinks the Caliph doesn’t have to be a blood relative of Muhammad.
4. What did Muslim armies do from about 600 – 1100? They conquered many territories and converted many people to Islam.
5. What is jihad? It is a Holy War for Muslims.
6. Who invaded Spain and tried to conquer Europe? Muslims
7. Who conquered the Christian Holy Land from the Romans? Muslims
Islamic Golden Age
1. When was the Islamic Golden Age? About 700s to 1200s
2. To make money what did many Muslims do? They traded to foreign markets around the world.
3. What did Avicenna write? He wrote one of the world’s first encyclopedias.
1. Why were Muslims not able to depict humans in art? Muslims were afraid people would worship the artwork.
2. What is arabesque? Arabesque is a design that resembles flowers or vines.
3. What is the Taj Mahal? It is a Muslim mausoleum.
Genghis Khan and the Mongols
1. Who destroyed much of the Islamic Empires in the Medieval Ages? The Mongols destroyed the Islamic Empires in the Medieval Ages, and the Christian Crusaders made it weaker.
2. Who was Genghis Khan? He was the leader of the Mongols.
3. What was the purpose of the Crusades? Christians wanted to be able to visit the Holy Land and to win the Holy Land back from the Muslims.
4. What was the Reconquista? It was a 700 year war the Spanish Catholics fought against the Muslims in Spain. The Spanish won in 1492.
The Ottoman Turks
1. Who conquered most of the Arab Muslim Empire and then established a new Empire in the 11th century? The Turks did.
2. How did the Turks treat Christian pilgrims trying to visit the Holy Land?
The Turks abused the pilgrims and would not allow them to visit the Holy Land.
3. Why did Pope Urban II call for a Crusade against the Muslim Turks?
The Pope wanted Christians to visit the Holy Land and to win the Holy Land back from the Muslims.
4. What was the result of the Crusades? The Turks won, but the Christians won the right to visit the Holy Land.
5. Who were the Ottoman Turks? The Ottoman Turks were an Asian people who conquered Arab Muslim Empires. The Turks were pagans, but converted to Islam.
6. Who were the Janissary Corps? The Turks invaded Europe and stole young Christian boys. The Turks trained the boys to be vicious fighters and to be Muslims. The Janissary Corps was a fierce army made up of kidnapped Christian boys.
7. What happened to Constantinople? The Turks conquered it. The Christians fled to Europe. The Turks renamed it Istanbul.
8. What did the Sultan try to do to Europe? The Sultan tried to conquer Europe and make it Muslim.
9. What was the last battle that stopped the Sultan and the Turks from conquering Europe? The Battle of Lepanto.
Ghana and West Africa